Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Exposure to hazardous … There is scant literature comparing social and physical environmental features across countries. These microbes are the barophiles(“pressure lovers”), microbes that have adapted to prefer and even require the high pressures. Air, Water and Land Pollution. While bacterial endospores are extremely resistant to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, vegetative cells were thought to be quite susceptible to its impact. Environmental factors can be anything that positively or negatively changes the environment and they can be natural or caused by outside forces. Organizations often use the PESTLE analysis to better understand and identify environmental threats and opportunities. Easy access to unhealthy foods may interact with personal sources of stress (e.g., from work) in promoting the consumption of calorie-dense foods. Environmental factors are the sum total of biotic and abiotic factors (living and non-living factors) that influences living in any environment. osmotic pressure, passive diffusion, solute, hypotonic, hypertonic, mechanosensitive (MS) channel, compatible solute, halophile, pH, neutrophile, acidophile, alkaliphile, optimum temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, psychrophile, psychrotroph, mesophile, thermophile, hyperthermophile, chaperone protein, electron transport chain (ETC), aerobic respiration, obligate aerobe, microaerophile, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, aerotolerant anaerobe, obligate anaerobe, reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, barophile, ionizing radiation, Deinococcus radiodurans, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thymine dimmers, photolyase. Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease. Other data indicate that nearly 3 percent of people in the United States report “rarely” or “never” spending time with friends, colleagues, or others in social settings. They can also be found in the Arctic and the Antarctic, living in ice wherever they can find pockets of liquid water. While there are some factors, such as genetics, that are out of our control, environmental factors are within our control. Jun 18, 2013 http://cnx.org/contents/e4e45509-bfc0-4aee-b73e-17b7582bf7e1@3. Environmental Factors. Although the precise effects of these transportation differences on people’s energy expenditure is difficult to quantify, it seems reasonable to expect that different transportation patterns would have important implications for U.S. levels of obesity (Pucher et al., 2010a). How can environmental factors affect business? As noted above, land use patterns and transportation systems differ starkly between the United States and other high-income countries (Richardson and Bae, 2004; Transportation Research Board, 2009). Characteristics of communities that foster distrust among neighbors, such as neglected properties and criminal activity, can affect both the cohesiveness of neighbors as well as the frequency of poor health outcomes (Center on Human Needs, 2012b). recent evidence also suggests that residential segregation by income and neighborhood disadvantage has been increasing over time in the United States (Reardon and Bischoff, 2011). In characterizing the design process, design/test criteria … Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods (as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures) has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children (Cubbin et al., 2000; Durkin et al., 1994). what type of food can they eat?) We will cover more about metabolism (i.e. Work on the “transmission” of obesity through social networks has highlighted the possible importance of social norms in shaping many health-related behaviors (Christakis and Fowler, 2007; Hruschka et al., 2011; Kawachi and Berkman, 2000).8 A long tradition of sociological research links these social features not only to illness, but also to risks of violence (Morenoff et al., 2001; Sampson et al., 1997). As stated in a thorough review by Hepburn and Hemenway (2004, p. 429): High-income countries outside the United States have much lower rates of handgun ownership than the United States, and the licensing, registration, and safe storage regulations they have make it much harder for known criminals to obtain firearms. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned. These microbes have increased unsaturated fatty acids in their plasma membrane, as well as shortened fatty acid tails. Social environments may also operate. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage. Lastly, psychrophiles produce cryoprotectants, special proteins or sugars that prevent the development of ice crystals that might damage the cell. In particular, particles that are less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (“fine” particles) are thought to pose the largest health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). This chapter, like others before it, focuses on three questions: •   Do environmental factors matter to health? Each pH units represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration, meaning a solution with a pH of 3 is 10x more acidic than a solution with a pH of 4. The truth is, it’s challenging to pin down exactly what factors cause an environmental health problem. Another notable example is the evidence linking lead exposures to cognitive development in children (Bellinger, 2008; Levin et al., 2008). There are also the hyperthermophiles, those microbes that like things extra spicy. For example, a recent review of studies from the late 1990s to mid-2000s found a consistent inverse relationship between airborne particulate matter and birth weight in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Parker et al., 2011a). Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. The contribution of environmental factors to the U.S. health disadvantage is likely to result from dynamic and reinforcing relationships between environmental and individual-level factors. Physical environmental threats (such as proximity to hazardous sites) may be more prevalent in low-income or minority neighborhoods, a concern of the environmental justice movement (Brulle and Pellow, 2006; Evans and Kantrowitz, 2002; Mohai et al., 2009; Morello-Frosch et al., 2011). The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries. Therefore, identifying which of these factors are important contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage could point to policy interventions that might reduce the disadvantage. By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces. Hazardous substances found in the air, soil and water can originate from a variety of sources, such as agricultural and industrial activities, mining operations, landfills and leaky underground storage tanks. Air pollution and climate change. What microbial groups have a requirement for high solute concentrations? Temperatures below optimal will lead to a decrease in enzyme activity and slower metabolism, while higher temperatures can actually denature proteins such as enzymes and carrier proteins, leading to cell death. Below we review the possible contributions of the environment to major conditions for which U.S. health disadvantages have been documented. There is, for example, little evidence that air pollution is a more severe problem in the United States than in other high-income countries (Baldasano et al., 2003; OECD, 2012a; Parker et al., 2011a).11 Although cross-national comparisons of the volume of emissions and carbon production per gross domestic product show that the United States is a major emitter, this finding does not provide a basis for comparing the cleanliness or healthfulness of air, water, or other resources. The oxygen requirement of an organism relates to the type of metabolism that it is using. The existing land use patterns and reliance on private automobile transportation not only contribute to traffic volume and injury fatalities, but probably also contribute to physical inactivity, air pollution, and carbon emissions. Levels of safety and violence may also be more strongly spatially segregated in the United States than in other countries, resulting in areas with greater exposure to violence and its harmful health consequences. Physical environmental factors contributing to mental illness are those that have the power to affect a person’s biology or neurochemistry, thereby increasing their chances of developing a disorder. However, cells have to be careful about what solutes they take up, since some solutes can interfere with cellular function and metabolism. Cells are subject to changes in osmotic pressure, due to the fact that the plasma membrane is freely permeable to water (a process known as passive diffusion). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation also causes damage to DNA, by attaching thymine bases that are next to one another on the DNA strand. The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites (the focus of classic environmental epidemiology); access to various health-related resources (e.g., healthy or unhealthy foods, recreational resources, medical care); and community design and the “built environment” (e.g., land use mix, street connectivity, transportation systems). As noted above, residential segregation by income in the United States is associated with violence and related outcomes (Sampson et al.. 15Advertising also plays an important role in promoting alcohol and tobacco use (Chuang et al., 2005; Kwate and Meyer, 2009; Mosher, 2011; Primack et al., 2007). Bodies of water like rivers carve out canyons, and oceans create beaches. later, so let us focus now on the physical characteristics of the environment and the adaptations of microbes. What is the smallest eukaryote ever discovered. … To ionizing radiation? 8Analytical complexities make the isolation of these effects difficult in observational studies. In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy (Frumkin, 2005). Cultural Influences. For example, cross-national comparisons show that levels of active transportation, such as walking or cycling, can be effectively modified by specific land use and transportation policies (Pucher and Dijkstra, 2003; Pucher et al., 2010b). Exposure to job strain exhibits a strong social gradient, which influences inequalities in the health of workers (Bambra, 2011).10. In addition, these environmental effects may contribute to the development of social norms regarding behaviors and weight (Christakis and Fowler, 2007), which then reinforce certain features of the physical environment, making them increasingly difficult to modify. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of the U.S. health disadvantage will require recognizing how the environment interacts with these other factors and helps perpetuate or mitigate the disadvantage across a broad set of health domains. Obligate anaerobes lack both enzymes, leaving them little or no protection against ROS. The. Pollution … OpenStax, Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning. Thus, relatively few of the homicides in these countries are firearm homicides. Across countries, studies have also shown that physical activity by children is associated with features of the built environment, including walking-related features, and physical activity resources (Bringolf-Isler et al., 2010; Davison and Lawson, 2006; Galvez et al., 2010; Sallis and Glanz, 2006).5, Although more definitive evidence is needed (see Feng et al., 2010), it has been hypothesized that these environmental features may contribute to the obesity epidemic (Galvez et al., 2010; Papas et al., 2007; Sallis and Glanz, 2009). 11Averages could mask important spatial heterogeneity in air pollution, and this heterogeneity could have important implications for differences in aggregate health if some populations are systematically exposed to high levels of pollution. Factors in the social environment that are important to health include those related to safety, violence, and social disorder in general, and more specific factors related to the type, quality, and stability of social connections, including social participation, social cohesion, social capital, and the collective efficacy of the neighborhood (or work) environment (Ahern and Galea, 2011).6 Social participation and integration in the immediate social environment (e.g., school, work, neighborhood) appear to be important to both mental and physical health (DeSilva et al., 2005). Studies conducted in the United States and other high-income countries have found that “walkability” (which is measured by such proxies as building density, land use mix, and street connectivity) predicts walking patterns (Durand et al., 2011; Inoue et al., 2009; Sundquist et al., 2011; Van Dyck et al., 2010). Concurrent (combined) environments may be more detrimental to reliability than the effects of a single environment. Studies that use measures of area socioeconomic characteristics as proxies for environmental features have generally reported similar associations of area features with health in both the United States and other countries (van Lenthe et al., 2005), but there is some evidence that area effects may be greater in countries, like the United States, which have relatively greater residential segregation (Moore et al., 2008; Stafford et al., 2004). Transportation systems and other aspects of physical environments that influence driving behaviors are also related to injury morbidity and mortality (Douglas et al., 2011). Data on population exposures to air pollution across countries are relatively scarce (OECD, 2008b). How can cells adapt when going from a low solute to a high solute environment and vice versa? Environmental factors that strongly influence equipment reliability are included in Table 1, which provides a checklist for environmental coverage (typical). Water will generally move in the direction necessary to try and equilibrate the cell’s solute concentration to the solute concentration of the surrounding environment. Social capital refers to “features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks, that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions” (Putnam, 1993, p. 167). Although many of the data reviewed in this chapter are highly suggestive of an important role for environmental factors, more empirical evidence is needed to draw definitive conclusions. OpenStax CNX. Residential segregation (and its many social and physical correlates) may be another environmental factor that affects multiple, seemingly unrelated health domains in which the United States has a health disadvantage. A shortlist of environmental factors that may contribute to the risk of developing dementia has been drawn up by experts. 12Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM-10) poses a health concern because it can accumulate in the respiratory system. This can include anything from natural forces like weather, living park inhabitants, or human interactionslike non-biodegradable litter. Aerotolerant anaerobes can also grow in the presence or absence of oxygen, exhibiting no preference. Once established, the land use patterns and transportation systems are self-reinforcing and may in turn hinder the development of efficient and inexpensive public transportation alternatives. One theory for the tendency of some immigrant groups to have better health outcomes than might be expected on the basis of their incomes and education (see Chapter 6) is the social support immigrants often provide one another (Matthews et al., 2010). In an interesting link between physical and social environments, Putnam (2000) has argued that increasing sprawl could contribute to declining social capital in the United States because suburban commutes leave less time for social interactions. In many ways, the environment can be thought of as the mid- or “meso-” level of influence linking macrolevel factors (e.g., economic and social policy) and microlevel processes (e.g., individual behavior). For example, if a person lacks access to health-related resources such as whole, … Features of social environments that may operate as stressors (including perceptions of safety and social disorder) have been linked to mental health, as have factors that could buffer the adverse effects of stress (e.g., social cohesion, social capital) (DeSilva et al., 2005; Mair et al., 2008). It is defined as a complex sum total of knowledge, belief, traditions, customs, art, moral law or any other habit acquired by people as members of society. Understanding the reasons for the spatial patterns of health within countries may shed light on environmental factors that may contribute to differences across countries. QUESTION 3: DO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. The importance of residential environments to obesity and related conditions, such as diabetes, was recently highlighted by a randomized housing intervention: low-income participants who were randomly assigned to move into low-poverty areas experienced significant improvements. Biotic factors would include the availabi… How do microbes differ in their response to water activity? Many aspects of the physical and social environment can affect people’s health.1 Spatial contexts linked to regions or neighborhoods are among. Cells need to take up compatible solutes, such as sugars or amino acids, which typically will not interfere with cellular processes. A key contender is the spatial sorting of people based on their socioeconomic position, race, or ethnicity. pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution, expressed in molarity. Environmental factors entail everything that changes the environment. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. An important example is evidence that links proximity to healthy or unhealthy food stores with dietary behaviors and related chronic disease outcomes (Babey et al., 2008; Larson et al., 2009; Moore et al., 2008; Morland et al., 2006).4 Food availability and food advertising influence energy intake and the nutritional value of foods consumed (Grier and Kumanyika, 2008; Harris et al., 2009; Institute of Medicine, 2006a). Importantly, these various features of the physical environment may act synergistically, reinforcing their effects and creating an “obesogenic” environment that affects all U.S. residents, at least to some extent. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Ionizing radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays, causes mutations and destruction of the cell’s DNA. What also seems important is the stability of social connections, such as the composition and stability of households7 and the existence of stable and supportive local social environments or neighborhoods in which to live and work. More. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter (solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air) on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity (Brook et al., 2010; Laumbach and Kipen, 2012; Mustafić et al., 2012; Tzivian, 2011). The public health concern has lead Scottish researchers to develop a list of environmental factors that may contribute to the risk of developing dementia. Environmental Factors that affect IQ include: modern media, education, breast feeding, womb conditions, butrition, pollution, nurture and parenting, prejudices and self belief, national culture, head injuries, sleep problems, drug and alcohol abuse, mental illnesses, stress and diseases. Environmental factors play a role in everything from health to behavior, and can differ in significance between industries. Neighborhood violent crime has in turn been linked to low birth weight (Morenoff, 2003) and childhood asthma (Wright, 2006), two other health conditions that appear to be more common in the United States than in other high-income countries. Microaerophiles require oxygen, but at a lower level than normal atmospheric levels – they only grow at levels of 2-10%. 3 Physical Environmental Factors. Environments that discourage physical activity may also limit social interactions, with potential implications for violence and drug use. Many of the environmental factors relevant to health are directly amenable to policy. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Unfortunately, the study was not designed to identify the specific environmental features responsible for the observed effect. This is an alphabetical list of environmental issues, harmful aspects of human activity on the biophysical environment. Adaptation to the cold required evolution of specific proteins, particularly enzymes, that can still function in low temperatures. Global warming - Global warming - Environmental consequences of global warming: Global warming and climate change have the potential to alter biological systems. More than half of the human population knows … A network of social relationships is an important source of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. The identification of causal effects using these aggregate summaries raises a number of methodological challenges and does not allow one to identify the specific environmental attributes that may be relevant. This shaking of the earth is called an earthquake. Environmental factors, broadly defined, may also contribute to at least part of the U.S. health disadvantage in homicide, violence, and drug-related deaths. The environmental factors affecting business growth and survival cannot be fully controlled. 13Even in these countries, however, automobile use is rising quickly. What does each term mean? They also utilize proton pumps that actively pump H+ out. Environmental factors that affect physical activity (primarily through their effect on active life-styles, including walking) and access to healthy foods (rather than calorie-dense foods) may help explain differences in obesity and related conditions between the United States and other high-income countries. However, these conditions are important to health. For example, the density of alcohol retail outlets has been linked to alcohol-related health complications (Campbell et al., 2009; Popova et al., 2009), including injury and violence (Cunradi et al., 2012; Toomey et al., 2012). The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. There is some evidence that environmental factors that could affect the U.S. health disadvantage are worse or are more inequitably distributed in the United States than in other high-income countries. At least one study of cross-national differences in social capital found that the United States ranked at an intermediate level compared with other high-income countries in measures of interpersonal trust; the study also found that the United States ranked higher than many other countries on indicators of membership in organizations (Schyns and Koop, 2010). Sudden movements below the earth's surface sometimes cause the shaking of the ground. How do microbes differ in their response to oxygen levels? The plasma membrane of these organisms contains more saturated fatty acids, with increased melting points. Neighborhood conditions can create stress (Cutrona et al., 2006; Do et al., 2011; Merkin et al., 2009), which have biological consequences (see Chapter 6). Conversely, if the solute concentration of the environment is higher than the solute concentration found inside the cell, the environment is said to be hypertonic. That means that most microbes are neutrophiles (“neutral lovers”), preferring a pH in the range of 5.5 to 8.0. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. On another measure, OECD data suggest that levels of trust14 are lower in the United States than the OECD average and than in all peer countries but Portugal, with Nordic countries showing the highest levels (OECD, 2011e). Large geographic disparities in toxic exposures to environmental hazards and in healthy food access have been repeatedly noted in U.S. communities (Diez Roux and Mair, 2010; Mohai et al., 2009; Pastor et al., 2005). Temperature, oxygen, pH, water activity, pressure, radiation, lack of nutrients…these are the primary ones. Legal. As a result, microbes have a growth curve in relation to temperature with an optimal temperature at which growth rate peaks, as well as minimum and maximum temperatures where growth continues but is not as robust. A range of other physical environmental features have been linked to other health outcomes. 14Trust data are based on the question: “Generally speaking would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?” Data come from two different surveys: the European Social Survey (2008 wave 4) for OECD European countries and the International Social Survey Programme (2007 wave) for non-OECD Europe (OECD, 2011e). Competition is fierce out in the microbial world (non-microbial world, too!) There is an ongoing debate about which factor is more influential\"nature or nurture\"but there is no denying that the world we live in plays a major role in sha… The dominant land use and development pattern espoused in the United States for decades (Richardson and Bae, 2004) has created dependence on private automobile transportation, with important implications for traffic volume and associated traffic injuries and fatalities (Transportation Research Board, 2009). Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Stressful psychosocial work environments and “job strain”—which refers to high external demands on a worker with low levels of control or rewards—have become recognized as prominent determinants of health and have been linked to self-reported ill health (Stansfeld et al., 1998), adverse mental health outcomes (Clougherty et al., 2010; Low et al., 2010; Stansfeld and Candy, 2006), and markers of chronic disease (Fujishiro et al., 2011). Workplaces have also long been recognized as important determinants of health and health inequalities, occupational safety, and access to preventive services (Anderson et al., 2009; Schulte et al., 2011). Thermophiles typically have a range of 45-80oC, and a growth optimum of 60oC. At least two studies have suggested that spatial variation in health-related resources may have very different distributions in the United States than in other countries. According to the World Gallup Poll, people in the United States are less likely than people in other high-income countries to express confidence in social institutions, and Americans also have the lowest voting participation rates of OECD countries. Important for certain segments of the OpenBook 's features far from the of. Concern because it can accumulate in the United States than in other rich nations 2008b.. As noted in Chapters 1 and 2, homicide rates in the presence or absence of oxygen and find oxygenated... 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